The Symposium on "Protein Metabolism: Infiuence of Growth Hormone, Anabolie Steroids, and Nutrition in Health and Disease" is the fourth in the series of International Symposia sponsored by CIBA Limited, Basle. As in the case of the previous conferences, it was planned and organised with the help of experts in the field concerned. Special thanks are due to Prof. A. QuERIDO and Dr. A. A. H. KAssENAAR who, once the idea of the Symposium had been conceived in the course of joint discussions, embarked upon the project with enthusiasm and inspiration, although they must have known full weil what a great deal of time and trouble the organisation of such a meeting would inevitably cost them. For their untiring efforts, for the judicious manner in which they contrived to select precisely those subjects on which interest is chiefiy centred today, and-last but not least-for their success in finding competent specialists to participate in the proceedings, we wish to assure them of our sincere gratitude. To all the members of the Department of Clinical Endocrinology and Diseases of Metabolism, at the University Hospital in Leyden, who helped in preparing the meeting, we would likewise extend a warm vote of thanks. The fact that the present volume, featuring the papers and discussions of the Symposium, has been published only a few months after the event, was made possible thanks to the co operative help of all who participated.
Essential amino acids (EAA) stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in humans. Leucine may have a greater stimulatory effect on MPS than other EAA and/or decrease muscle protein breakdown (MPB). To determine the effect of 2 different leucine concentrations on muscle protein turnover and associated signaling, young men (n = 6) and women (n = 8) ingested 10 g EAA in 1 of 2 groups: composition typical of high quality proteins (CTRL; g leucine) or increased leucine concentration (LEU; g leucine). Participants were studied for 180 min postingestion. Fractional synthetic rate and leg phenylalanine and leucine kinetics were assessed on muscle biopsies using stable isotopic techniques. Signaling was determined by immunoblotting. Arterial leucine concentration and delivery to the leg increased in both groups and was significantly higher in LEU than in CTRL; however, transport into the muscle and intracellular availability did not differ between groups. MPS increased similarly in both groups 60 min postingestion. MPB decreased at 60 min only in LEU, but net muscle protein balance improved similarly. Components of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling were improved in LEU, but no changes were observed in ubiquitin-proteasome system signaling. Changes in light chain 3 and mTOR association with Unc-51-like kinase 1 indicate autophagy decreased more in LEU. We conclude that in 10 g of EAA, the leucine content typical of high quality proteins (~ g) is sufficient to induce a maximal skeletal muscle protein anabolic response in young adults, but leucine may play a role in autophagy regulation.
SUGGESTED USE: Mix 36g of Powder with 300ml of Water or Skimmed Milk.
SERVING SIZE: One level scoop (36g):
K cals/K: 120 k cals
Fat (including MCT Oil):
Trans Fat: 0g
of which sugar:
AMINO ACIDS PROFILE:
L-Cystine 1 586mg
Glutamic Acid 3003mg
L - Arginine 1247mg
Branch Chain Amino Acids
+ Naturally Occuring
Whey Protein Blend (Whey Protein Concentrate Whey Protein Isolate), Milk Protein Concentrate (High in Micellar Casein), Milk Protein, Soy Protein Isolate. Creatine Monohydrate, L-Glutamine, L-Glycine, Taurine. Flavouring, Natural Colourings, Thickners (Xanthan Gum, Acacia Gum), Sweetener : Sucralose