A very typical case of severe cholestasis due to anabolic steroid use. Because the steroids were being used without medical supervision, the dose and actual duration of use of each preparation was unclear, but cholestasis usually arises within 4 to 12 weeks of starting a C-17 alkylated androgenic steroid. The jaundice can be severe and prolonged and accompanied by severe pruritus and marked weight loss. The serum enzymes are typically minimally elevated except for a short period immediately after stopping therapy. The pattern of enzyme elevations can be hepatocellular, cholestatic or mixed. Liver biopsy shows a “bland” cholestasis with minimal inflammation and hepatocellular necrosis. Ma Huang has also been implicated in cases of drug induced liver injury, but is associated with an acute hepatocellular pattern of injury.
1. Discontinue steroids—In the acute form of IOP elevation from steroids, discontinuing steroids can cause the IOP to normalize in days. In the chronic form, elevation of IOP can last one to four weeks. 26 In a small subset of patients, the IOP may remain chronically elevated despite discontinuation of steroids. In one series, % of eyes converted to glaucoma. Interestingly, all of these patients had a family history of The duration of steroid treatment seems to play a role as well. In one series, the IOP remained elevated in patients where the steroid was used for more than four years. 28 2. Removal of depot steroids—One can cause a decrease in IOP by excising depot ,29,30 For intravitreal steroids, vitrectomy can also be used to reduce 3. Glaucoma treatment—Treatment of steroid glaucoma includes the use of topical glaucoma medications, laser trabeculoplasty, filtering surgery, glaucoma drainage implant surgery, or one of the other means of treatment of primary open angle glaucoma.
Cells of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis lack aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) that converts corticosterone to aldosterone, and thus these tissues produce only the weak mineralocorticoid corticosterone. However, both these zones do contain the CYP17A1 missing in zona glomerulosa and thus produce the major glucocorticoid, cortisol. Zona fasciculata and zona reticularis cells also contain CYP17A1, whose 17,20-lyase activity is responsible for producing the androgens, dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Thus, fasciculata and reticularis cells can make corticosteroids and the adrenal androgens, but not aldosterone.