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Petroleos de Venezuela, . (PDVSA) was one of the two producers who participated in the earlier study. In a two-part transaction, Lyondell negotiated a 25-year CSA with PDVSA to supply 240 MBD of heavy Venezuelan crude to the refinery, and PDVSA's wholly owned . subsidiary Citgo agreed to invest in the refinery expansion project in exchange for partial ownership of the refinery. Initially estimated to cost $500 million, the refinery expansion project would eventually top $ billion and lead to some acrimonious relationships between Lyondell and Citgo.