The Rome lab at UCLA has collaborated with a number of groups to use the baculovirus system to produce large quantities of vaults. When the major vault protein (MVP) is expressed in insect cells, vault particles are assembled on polyribosomes in the cytoplasm.  By using molecular genetic techniques to modify the gene encoding the major vault protein, vault particles have been produced with chemically active peptides attached to their sequence. These modified proteins are incorporated into the inside of the vault particle without altering its basic structure. Proteins and peptides can also be packaged into vaults by attachment of a packaging domain derived from the VPARP protein.  A number of modified vault particles have been produced in order to test the concept that vaults can be bio-engineered to allow their use in a wide variety of biological applications including drug delivery , biological sensors, enzyme delivery, controlled release , and environmental remediation .
Lysosomes are microscopic, sac-like structures suspended in the cytosol of the cell's plasma membrane. The digestive enzymes contained within these organelles are called acid hydrolases. Aside from the breakdown of food particles, the enzymes also digest damaged membranes, aiding in recycling wornout parts of the cell. Another important function of the lysosomes is the prevention of microorganisms from invading the cell. Harmful bacteria and viruses are usually targeted and digested by lysosomes found in white blood cells. Due to their digestive properties, acid hydrolases are isolated from the rest of the cell by the membrane that envelopes the lysosomes. Otherwise, the enzymes will digest all cellular components.