The main pharmacological effects of digoxin are on the heart . Extracardiac effects are responsible for some of the therapeutic and many of the adverse effects (see above). It exerts a mechanical effect as it increases myocardial contractility; however, the duration of the contractile response is only slightly increased. High ventricular rate leads to insufficient diastolic filling time. By slowing down the conduction in the AV node and increasing its refractory period, digoxin can reduce the ventricular rate. The arrhythmia itself is not affected, but the pumping function of the heart improves, owing to improved filling.
Beclometasone dipropionate was first patented in 1962 and used medically in 1972.  It was approved for medical use in the United States in 1976.  It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines , the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system .  The wholesale price in the developing world for an inhaler containing 200 doses of medication is about USD as of 2014.  In the United States it costs between 50 and 100 USD for a typical month supply of the inhaled form. 
Steroid nasal sprays rarely cause side-effects. This is because they are applied directly to the nose and very little of this medicine is absorbed into the body. Therefore, they are much less likely to cause side-effects in other parts of the body. Occasionally, they cause dryness, crusting, and bleeding of the nose. If this occurs, stop it for a few days and then restart. There have been reports of nasal steroids possibly having an effect on behaviour, particularly in children. This is thought to be rare. However, a few people have reported hyperactivity, problems sleeping, anxiety, depression, and aggression.