Adverse effects due to IFN-alpha have been described in almost every organ system. Many side-effects are clearly dose-dependent. Taken together, occurrence of flu-like symptoms, hematological toxicity, elevated transaminases, nausea, fatigue, and psychiatric sequelae are the most frequently encountered. Although insight in the mechanisms accounting for IFN-alpha-related toxicities has improved in recent years, much remains to be elucidated. Guidelines on the management of these untoward sequelae are mostly based on clinical experience, while many side-effects can only be adequately handled by dose adjustment or cessation of treatment.
La información en esta monografía tiene la intención de servir para fines informativos únicamente, y está diseñada para ayudar a los usuarios a aclarar sus inquietudes de salud. La información está basada en la revisión de datos de investigación científica, patrones históricos de práctica y experiencia clínica. Esta información no se debe interpretar como un consejo médico especifico. Los usuarios deben consultar con un proveedor médico calificado para preguntas específicas respecto a terapias, diagnósticos y/o enfermedades, antes de tomar decisiones acerca de una terapia.
Castoreum extract (CAS NO. 8023-83-4; FEMA NO. 2261) is a natural product prepared by direct hot-alcohol extraction of castoreum, the dried and macerated castor sac scent glands (and their secretions) from the male or female beaver. It has been used extensively in perfumery and has been added to food as a flavor ingredient for at least 80 years. Both the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regard castoreum extract as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Acute toxicity studies in animals indicate that castoreum extract is nontoxic by both oral and dermal routes of administration and is not irritating or phototoxic to skin. Skin sensitization has not been observed in human subject tests. Castoreum extract possesses weak antibacterial activity. A long historical use of castoreum extract as a flavoring and fragrance ingredient has resulted in no reports of human adverse reactions. On the basis of this information, low-level, long-term exposure to castoreum extract does not pose a health risk. The objective of this review is to evaluate the safety-in-use of castoreum extract as a food ingredient.