Anabolic and catabolic pathways

Anabolic processes tend toward "building up" organs and tissues . These processes produce growth and differentiation of cells and increase in body size, a process that involves synthesis of complex molecules . Examples of anabolic processes include the growth and mineralization of bone and increases in muscle mass. Endocrinologists have traditionally classified hormones as anabolic or catabolic, depending on which part of metabolism they stimulate. The classic anabolic hormones are the anabolic steroids , which stimulate protein synthesis, muscle growth, and insulin . [3] The balance between anabolism and catabolism is also regulated by circadian rhythms , with processes such as glucose metabolism fluctuating to match an animal's normal periods of activity throughout the day. [4]

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is essential for the maintenance of calcium homeostasis through, in part, its actions to regulate bone remodeling. While PTH stimulates both bone formation and bone resorption, the duration and periodicity of exposure to PTH governs the net effect on bone mass, that is whether it is catabolic or anabolic. PTH receptor signaling in osteoblasts and osteocytes can increase the RANKL/OPG ratio, increasing both osteoclast recruitment and osteoclast activity, and thereby stimulating bone resorption. In contrast, PTH-induced bone formation is explained, at least in part, by its ability to downregulate SOST/sclerostin expression in osteocytes, permitting the anabolic Wnt signaling pathway to proceed. The two modes of administration of PTH, that is, continuous vs. intermittent, can regulate, in bone cells, different sets of genes; alternatively, the same sets of genes exposed to PTH in sustained vs. transient way, will favor bone resorption or bone formation, respectively. This article reviews the effects of PTH on bone cells that lead to these dual catabolic and anabolic actions on the skeleton.

This study shows that structural bone changes assessed with HR-pQCT are accompanied by alterations in systemic markers of bone resorption and bone formation. Besides, it can be shown that bone erosions in RA patients depend on disease duration, whereas osteophytes are associated with age as well as serum level of BAP. Therefore, these data not only suggest that different variables are involved in formation of bone erosions and osteophytes in RA patients, but also that periarticular bone changes correlate with alterations in systemic markers of bone metabolism, pointing out BAP as an important parameter.

Anabolic and catabolic pathways

anabolic and catabolic pathways

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