17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency treatment

This condition is inherited in an X-linked dominant pattern . The gene associated with this condition is located on the X chromosome , which is one of the two sex chromosomes. In females (who have two X chromosomes), a mutation in one of the two copies of the gene in each cell is usually sufficient to cause the disorder. However, some females with one mutation do not develop any signs or symptoms of the condition. In males (who have only one X chromosome ), a mutation in the only copy of the gene in each cell causes the disorder. In most cases, males experience more severe symptoms of the disorder than females. A characteristic of X-linked inheritance is that fathers cannot pass X-linked traits to their sons.

This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily , which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols by utilizing NADH and/or NADPH as cofactors. The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ), and the oxidation of 9alpha,11beta-PGF2 to PGD2. It may play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as asthma, and may also have a role in controlling cell growth and/or differentiation. This gene shares high sequence identity with three other gene members and is clustered with those three genes at chromosome 10p15-p14. [7]

ERα/ERβ are in inactive state trapped in multimolecular chaperone complexes organized around the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), containing p23 protein, and immunophilin, and located in majority in cytoplasm and partially in nucleus. In the E2 classical pathway or estrogen classical pathway, estradiol enters the cytoplasm , where it interacts with ERs. Once bound E2, ERs dissociate from the molecular chaperone complexes and become competent to dimerize, migrate to nucleus, and to bind to specific DNA sequences ( estrogen response element , ERE), allowing for gene transcription which can take place over hours and days.

Two soluble enzyme activities, 17 beta-estradiol dehydrogenase and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, copurified from the cytosol fraction of human term placenta, were identically inactivated by 6 beta-bromoacetoxyprogesterone. This affinity alkylating steroid binds at the enzyme-active site (Km = 866 microM; Vmax = mumol/min/mg). Enzyme inactivation by four concentrations of 6 beta-bromoacetoxyprogesterone (molar ratio of steroid to enzyme, 71/1 to 287/1) causes irreversible and time-dependent loss of both the 17 beta- and 20 alpha-activities according to first order kinetics and affirms that the alkylating steroid is an active site-directed inhibitor (KI = X 10(-3) M; k3 = X 10(-3) s-1). Affinity radioalkylation studies using 6 beta-[2'-14C]bromoacetoxyprogesterone indicate that 2 mol of steroid are bound to each mole of inactivated enzyme dimer (Mr = 68,000). Amino acid analyses of the acid hydrolysate of radioalkylated enzyme show that 6 beta-bromoacetoxyprogesterone carboxymethylates cysteine (56%), histidine (22%), and lysine (8%) residues in the active site. These results are identical with those reported for 2-bromo[2'-14C]acetamidoestrone methyl ether radioalkylation of purified "17 beta-estradiol dehydrogenase." The parallel inactivation of 17 beta-estradiol dehydrogenase and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase by 6 beta-bromoacetoxyprogesterone further shows that both activities reside at a single enzyme-active site. The radioalkylation profile supports our proposed model of one enzyme-active site wherein the bound progestin and estrogen substrates are inverted, one relative to the other.

17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency treatment

17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency treatment

Two soluble enzyme activities, 17 beta-estradiol dehydrogenase and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, copurified from the cytosol fraction of human term placenta, were identically inactivated by 6 beta-bromoacetoxyprogesterone. This affinity alkylating steroid binds at the enzyme-active site (Km = 866 microM; Vmax = mumol/min/mg). Enzyme inactivation by four concentrations of 6 beta-bromoacetoxyprogesterone (molar ratio of steroid to enzyme, 71/1 to 287/1) causes irreversible and time-dependent loss of both the 17 beta- and 20 alpha-activities according to first order kinetics and affirms that the alkylating steroid is an active site-directed inhibitor (KI = X 10(-3) M; k3 = X 10(-3) s-1). Affinity radioalkylation studies using 6 beta-[2'-14C]bromoacetoxyprogesterone indicate that 2 mol of steroid are bound to each mole of inactivated enzyme dimer (Mr = 68,000). Amino acid analyses of the acid hydrolysate of radioalkylated enzyme show that 6 beta-bromoacetoxyprogesterone carboxymethylates cysteine (56%), histidine (22%), and lysine (8%) residues in the active site. These results are identical with those reported for 2-bromo[2'-14C]acetamidoestrone methyl ether radioalkylation of purified "17 beta-estradiol dehydrogenase." The parallel inactivation of 17 beta-estradiol dehydrogenase and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase by 6 beta-bromoacetoxyprogesterone further shows that both activities reside at a single enzyme-active site. The radioalkylation profile supports our proposed model of one enzyme-active site wherein the bound progestin and estrogen substrates are inverted, one relative to the other.

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